It took me 30 minutes to figure this out. I hope it takes you less.

Earlier today, I submitted a manuscript to GECCO Hot-Off-the-Press track. The submission process was pretty straightforward, until I hit Submit and encountered this error:

All fonts must be embedded in the PDF.

Googling this error led me to fiddle around with Acrobat Reader, try different TeX engines and apply different fonts in the manuscript. All was to no avail.

After a while, I circled back to the GECCO page for papers submission instructions to find this note on fonts:

Python’s matplotlib uses Type 3 fonts by default. You need to configure matplotlib to use TrueType fonts.

“It probably has to do with the figures”, I thought to myself.

You see, at that point, I had been including my R figures with the .pdf extension, and the system probably couldn’t load Helvetica from the figure. Now, I could have gone back to R and tried re-generating these figures to export the characters as graphics, but I decided to try a faster approach. I used an online converter to quickly convert my figures to .eps. That’s it! Now the only thing left to do is make sure the .eps files look okay and edit your .tex file to read in the .eps instead of .pdf figures. Everything worked out!

I hope your GECCO submission is smoother than mine! Good luck!


A couple hours after I published this post, Alex de Sá kindly pointed me to a few ways to resolve this issue suggested by overleaf. Thank you Alex!

P.S. As a side note, in case you need to convert a lot of .pdf files to .eps, here’s a little bash script that makes a subdirectory, copy the pdfs there and convert all those pdfs for you:


mkdir outputEPS
cp *.pdf outputEPS/
cd outputEPS

# convert all pdf to ps
for filename in *.pdf; do
    pdf2ps "$filename"

# convert all ps to eps
for filename in *.ps; do
    ps2eps "$filename"

# clean up
rm *.pdf
rm *.ps

If you name this file and put it in the same directory as all the .pdf files you want to convert, all you need to do now is to run it:



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